World Stem Cell Summit 2010

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Nature 12 November 2009 Volume 462 Number 7270 pp137-242


12 November 2009 Volume 462 Number 7270, pp 137 - 242

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Containing risk p137
The ad-hoc proliferation of high-security biological labs must be
controlled, and should be tied in more closely to broader research
and public-health goals.

No turning back pp137-138
Spain should not use the recession as an excuse to stall plans to
boost its scientific enterprise.

A healthy get together p138
The recently launched World Health Summit offers a rare chance
for dialogue.

Gene therapy: Nerve repair p140

Climate science: Volcano chills p140

Longevity: Sweet food, short life p140

Climate change: Kilimanjaro's loss p140

Neuroscience: Early stress marks genes p140

Astronomy: Galaxies far, far away pp140-141

Biophysics: DNA stop and go p141

Atmospheric science: Industrial UV shield p141

Nanoscience: Release the goods p141

Genomics: Sequencing costs drop p141

Journal club p141
Robert Blelloch

News briefing: 12 November 2009 pp142-143
The week in science

End of the road for Copenhagen? pp144-145
Expectations are dropping as December's UN climate talks get closer.
Jeff Tollefson

Wellcome Trust makes it personal in funding revamp p145
People not projects are the focus of longer-term grants.
Natasha Gilbert

European biosafety labs set to grow pp146-147
Bioterrorism and emerging diseases spur building boom, although some
question the need for more facilities.
Declan Butler

Call to boost isotope supplies p147
Two dedicated plants are needed to meet demand, committee says.
Eric Hand

China moves to help high-tech firms p149
But initiatives meet with mixed response.
David Cyranoski

Snapshot: Glider eavesdrops on whales p151
Probe tunes in to cetacean song.
Rex Dalton

Britain sets up defence advisory group p151
Government seeks academic input on security issues.
Geoff Brumfiel

Report row ousts top Indian scientist p152
Ruckus over call for reform at national science agency raises
questions about attracting expatriate talent.
K. S. Jayaraman

Correction p152

Swine flu: One killer virus, three key questions pp154-157
Nature visits the labs of researchers working to solve some of
the most perplexing puzzles of swine-flu behaviour.
Brendan Maher and Declan Butler

Weapons: the need to replace ageing and deteriorating stock p158
Jay Davis

Weapons: existing stockpile can be safely maintained p158
Gerald E. Marsh

Many types of action are required to tackle climate change p158
Mike Hulme

Decarbonization figures for India and China unconvincing pp158-159
Roger A. Pielke, Jr.

No special cases in efforts to stop immigration fraud p159
Iain Scott

Emissions affected by trade among developing countries p159
Dabo Guan and David M. Reiner

Phosphorus decline could be good for water supplies p159
Michael J. Castellano

Universities need a new social contract pp160-161
To reconcile solution-driven research and blue-skies thinking,
academic institutions urgently need innovative collaborations
and new funding models, says Indira V. Samarasekera.
Indira V. Samarasekera

Global Darwin: Revolutionary road pp162-163
In China, under the threat of Western imperialism, interpretations
of Darwin's ideas paved the way for Marx, Lenin and Mao, argues
James Pusey in the third in our series on reactions to
evolutionary theory.
James Pusey

Fun with nuclear reactors p164
Two books reveal the spirit of adventure behind the history of nuclear
technology, finds William J. Nuttall.
William J. Nuttall reviews Uranium Wars: The Scientific Rivalry that
Created the Nuclear Age by Amir Aczel

Valuing the digital economy p165
John Gilbey reviews Wired for Innovation: How Information Technology
is Reshaping the Economy by Erik Brynjolfsson and Adam Saunders

Tips from the top of the career ladder pp165-166
Asha Gopinathan reviews Beyond the Boys' Club: Strategies for Achieving
Career Success as a Woman Working in a Male-dominated Field
by Suzanne Doyle-Morris

Q&A: The algorist p166
Having moved from engineering to art, Jean-Pierre Hebert applies
mathematical rules to generate artworks that explore themes of chaos
and determinism. As resident artist at the Kavli Institute for
Theoretical Physics, and with an exhibition on in Los Angeles,
Hebert explains his interest in algorithms.
Daniel Cressey reviews Jean-Pierre Hebert: Drawings as Thoughts

Drug discovery: Predicting promiscuity pp167-168
Computational methods that reliably predict the biological activities
of compounds have long been sought. The validation of one such
method suggests that in silico predictions for drug discovery have
come of age.
Andrew L. Hopkins

Astrophysics: A fossil record for exoplanets pp168-169
Stars that host planets experience more mixing of their internal
elements than do stars that lack such companions. This correlation
may serve as a useful diagnostic in the search for planets around
stars other than the Sun.
Marc Pinsonneault

Language evolution: The importance of being human pp169-170
The FOXP2 gene is implicated in the development of human speech and
language. A comparison of the human and chimpanzee FOXP2 proteins
highlights the differences in function in the two species.
Martin H. Dominguez and Pasko Rakic

Condensed-matter physics: Dirac electrons broken to pieces pp170-171
Graphene continues to surprise physicists with its remarkable electronic
properties. Experiments now show that electrons in the material can
team up to behave as if they are only fragments of themselves.
Alberto F. Morpurgo

Chemical biology: A Notch above other inhibitors pp171-173
A tenet of drug discovery states that molecules greater than a certain
size don't enter cells. But not only do certain synthetic peptides
refute this idea, they also inhibit 'undruggable' biological targets.
Paramjit S. Arora and Aseem Z. Ansari

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Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs pp175-181
Drugs that are chemically quite similar often bind to biologically
diverse protein targets, and it is unclear how selective many of
these compounds are. Because many drug-target combinations exist,
it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally.
Here, 3,665 drugs are tested against hundreds of targets; chemical
similarities between drugs and ligand sets are found to predict
thousands of unanticipated associations.
Michael J. Keiser et al.

Direct inhibition of the NOTCH transcription factor complex pp182-188
It is notoriously difficult to target transcription factors with
aberrant activity in cancer. Inappropriate activation of the NOTCH
complex of transcription factors is directly implicated in the
pathogenesis of several disease states, including T-cell acute
lymphoblastic leukaemia. The design of synthetic, cell-permeable,
stabilized [alpha]-helical peptides that disrupt protein-protein
interactions in NOTCH is now described.
Raymond E. Moellering et al.

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Enhanced lithium depletion in Sun-like stars with orbiting planets
Although a large range of lithium (Li) abundances is observed in
solar-type stars, this range has proved theoretically difficult to
understand. An earlier suggestion that Li is more depleted in stars
with planets was weakened by the lack of a proper comparison sample
of stars without detected planets. Here, Li abundances are reported
for an unbiased sample of solar-analogue stars with and without
detected planets. It is found that about 50% of the solar analogues
without detected planets have on average ten times more Li that those
with planets.
Garik Israelian et al.

Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons
in graphene pp192-195
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is the quintessential
collective quantum behaviour of charge carriers confined to two
dimensions but it has not yet been observed in graphene, a material
distinguished by the charge carriers' two-dimensional and relativistic
character. Here, and in an accompanying paper, the FQHE is observed
in graphene through the use of devices containing suspended graphene
sheets; the results of these two papers open a door to the further
elucidation of the complex physical properties of graphene.
Xu Du et al.

Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene pp196-199
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is the quintessential
collective quantum behaviour of charge carriers confined to two
dimensions but it has not yet been observed in graphene, a material
distinguished by the charge carriers' two-dimensional and
relativistic character. Here, and in an accompanying paper, the FQHE
is observed in graphene through the use of devices containing
suspended graphene sheets; the results of these two papers open a
door to the further elucidation of the complex physical properties
of graphene.
Kirill I. Bolotin et al.

Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond
Raman spectroscopy pp200-204
Tracing the transient atomic motions that lie at the heart of chemical
reactions requires high-resolution structural information on the
timescale of molecular vibrations. Femtosecond stimulated Raman
spectroscopy is now shown to provide sufficiently detailed and
time-resolved vibrational spectra of the electronically excited
chromophore of green fluorescent protein to reveal skeletal motions
involved in the proton transfer that produces the fluorescent form of
the protein.
Chong Fang, Renee R. Frontiera, Rosalie Tran and Richard A. Mathies

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42
billion years ago pp205-208
The study of stable oxygen isotope ratios ([delta]18O) of Precambrian
cherts suggests that ocean temperatures during the Archaean era
(about 3.5 billion years ago) were between 55 [deg]C and 85 [deg]C,
but uncertainty about the [delta]18O of the primitive ocean has led to
considerable debate regarding this conclusion. Here, a combined analysis
of oxygen and hydrogen istopes sampled from 3.42-billion-year-old Buck
Reef Chert rocks in South Africa indicates that the ancient ocean was
much cooler than previously thought.
M. T. Hren, M. M. Tice and C. P. Chamberlain

Permeability of asthenospheric mantle and melt extraction rates at
mid-ocean ridges pp209-212
The timescale for segregation and transport of basaltic melts, which
are ultimately responsible for formation of the Earth's crust, is
critically dependent on the permeability of the partly molten
asthenospheric mantle, yet this permeability is known mainly from
semi-empirical and analogue models. A high-pressure, high-temperature
centrifuge is now used to measure the rate of basalt melt flow in
olivine aggregates; the resulting permeabilities are one to two orders
of magnitude larger than predicted by current parameterizations.
James A. D. Connolly, Max W. Schmidt, Giulio Solferino and
Nikolai Bagdassarov

Human-specific transcriptional regulation of CNS development genes by
FOXP2 pp213-217
The transcription factor FOXP2 is the only gene implicated in human
speech, and yet it differs very little from the chimpanzee orthologue.
Here, the two amino acids specific to humans are shown to alter FOXP2
function in vitro by conferring differential transcriptional regulation,
and these observations are extended in vivo to human and chimpanzee
brain. Together, these data identify transcriptional targets that may
serve critical functions in language development.
Genevieve Konopka et al.

Bidirectional plasticity in fast-spiking GABA circuits by visual
experience pp218-221
The contribution of individual circuit elements to experience-dependent
synaptic plasticity in the brain remains unknown. An intracellular
analysis of the changes that occur when an eye is deprived of vision
in early life now reveals a counterintuitive initial shift towards the
occluded eye followed by a late preference for the open eye. These
results, combined with intracellular pharmacology, suggest that
inhibitory neurons have a major role in shaping experience-dependent
plasticity in the developing visual cortex.
Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama et al.

Human DAZL, DAZ and BOULE genes modulate primordial germ-cell and
haploid gamete formation pp222-225
Defects in human germ-cell (oocyte and sperm) development are the
leading cause of infertility in men and women. A germ-cell reporter
is now used to quantify and isolate primordial germ cells derived
from both male and female human embryonic stem cells. Human DAZL
is observed to function in primordial germ-cell formation, whereas
the closely related genes DAZ and BOULE promote later stages of
meiosis and development of gametes.
Kehkooi Kee et al.

Uptake through glycoprotein 2 of FimH+ bacteria by M cells initiates
mucosal immune response pp226-230
To evoke the mucosal immune system, which forms the largest part of
the entire immune system, antigens on the mucosal surface must be
transported across the epithelial barrier. The molecular mechanisms
promoting this antigen uptake, called antigen transcytosis and
mediated by specialized epithelial M cells, remain largely unknown.
Here, glycoprotein 2, specifically expressed by M cells, is reported
to serve as a transcytotic receptor for mucosal antigens.
Koji Hase et al.

Cohesin acetylation speeds the replication fork pp231-234
Cohesin inhibits the transcriptional machinery's interaction with
and movement along chromatin, but does not prevent replication
forks from duplicating the genome in S phase. Using single-molecule
analysis, a replication complex is now found to affect acetylation
of a subunit of cohesin, and this acetylation appears to be a central
determinant of fork processivity. Loss of this regulatory mechanism
leads to the spontaneous accrual of DNA damage.
Marie-Emilie Terret et al.

Careers Q&A
Sheila Widnall p237
Based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge,
Widnall is the winner of the Arthur M. Bueche Award for expanding
opportunities for women and minorities in engineering.
Virginia Gewin

Postdoc journal
Nice to be appreciated p237
Postdoc appreciation day has come and gone worldwide. Did anyone notice?
Julia Boughner

In Brief
UK engineering up p237
UK undergraduate admissions rise in physics and engineering programmes.

In Brief
Eagle eye on resources p237
A new online research resources network for scientists is launched.

In Brief
Chinese science online p237
Chinese government launches a website aimed at sharing science
and technology resources.

Careers and Recruitment
A bridge to somewhere p238
Graduate students who head abroad to study face any number of
challenges if they hope to prosper. Virginia Gewin provides a
study guide.
Virginia Gewin

Clarification p239

An open letter p242
To any impressionable young school leavers who are considering
joining the space corps.
Martin Hayes

Advance Online Publication
08 November 2009
CD8+ T lymphocyte mobilization to virus-infected tissue requires
CD4+ T-cell help
Yusuke Nakanishi, Bao Lu, Craig Gerard and Akiko Iwasaki

The abscisic acid receptor PYR1 in complex with abscisic acid
Julia Santiago et al.

Direct cell reprogramming is a stochastic process amenable to
Jacob Hanna et al.

Immunology: A helpers' guide to infection
Killer T cells were thought to patrol the body unhindered, freely
gaining access to sites of infection. But it seems that, at least
in some body tissues, helper T cells must pave the way for killer
T-cell entry.
Thomas Gebhardt and Francis R. Carbone

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