World Stem Cell Summit 2010

Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Nature 4 December 2008 Volume 456 Number 7222, pp545-674


4 December 2008 Volume 456 Number 7222, pp 545-674

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The cost of silence? p545
Analyses of AIDS deaths attributable to misguided policies in South
Africa carry lessons for scientific leaders.

Culture clash in China pp545-546
An online row highlights the need for Chinese universities to fix
their hiring policies.

Focus on Earth p546
Europe is rightly pioneering the systematic appliance of science in
space to societal needs.

Silent killer p548

Astronomy: Blast from the past p548

Climate change: Mulled wine p548

Neurobiology: Mad mouse disease p548

Statistics: One size fits all p548

Evolution: Electric love pp548-549

Pharmacology: Setting the pace p549

Quantum physics: Signature shift p549

Genomics: The baby-milk bacterium p549

Geosciences: Deep-sea mix p549

Journal club p549
John Greally

Slow shipping hobbles Chinese science pp550-551
A lack of laboratory reagents is taking its toll on researchers.
David Cyranoski

European funding plan 'unviable' p551
Top universities shun Joint Technology Initiatives.
Natasha Gilbert

Space agency funding defies downturn p552
European ministers commit euro10 billion to space missions, Earth
monitoring and new facilities.
Declan Butler

Melanoma in mice casts doubt on scarcity of cancer stem cells pp553
Tumour treatments may need a rethink.
Monya Baker

Can triniobium tin shrink accelerators? p555
Exotic superconductors promise savings.
Eric Hand

Europe to pay royalties for cancer gene p556
BRCA1 patent decision may be ignored in clinics.
Alison Abbott

Austrian ethics watchdog launched pp557
Scandals prompt formation of misconduct body.
Alison Abbott

UK charity launches assault on deadliest cancers p558

Greenhouse gases hit modern-day highs pp558-559

Europe's synchrotron sharpens up its X-rays pp558

Europe rejects Wisconsin's key stem-cell patent pp559

Hawking plans long commute to Canada pp559

Chemicals firm cancels plans for biodiesel plant p559

The Sputnik fable pp561
Oversimplifying the effect of the space race on US science funding
could lead scientists down the wrong path, says David Goldston.

Agronomy: Five crop researchers who could change the world pp563-568
The current crisis in worldwide food prices reinforces the need for
more productive agriculture.
Emma Marris meets five ambitious scientists determined to stop the
world from going hungry.

Switch to ecological engineering would aid independence p570
Josef Settele, Jacobus Biesmeijer and Riccardo Bommarco

Offering unproven genetic tests to the public is irresponsible p570
J. R. M. Oliveira

Speaking up for economic-sciences modelling p570
Jesper Stage

Make secondary education universal pp572-573
The time is right to push global learning beyond primary-school level,
says Joel E. Cohen. The benefits could include a dramatically smaller
increase in world population by 2050.

Preparing for pandemics p574
More deadly than the First World War, the global outbreak of influenza
in 1918 terrified populations and tested governments. But would we
fare any better today, asks Michael Sargent?
Michael Sargent reviews Living with Enza: The Forgotten Story of
Britain and the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 by Mark Honigsbaum

Crimes in the name of research p575
Benno Muller-Hill reviews Das Robert Koch-Institut im
Nationalsozialismus by Annette Hinz-Wessels

Conspiracy at the bench pp575-576
Henry Gee reviews Experimental Heart: A Novel by Jennifer L. Rohn

Q&A: Electronic music comes of age p576
The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York was the
first institution of its kind in the United States for experimenters
seeking new technology-based sounds. Fifty years after its founding,
director of research Doug Repetto explains how electronic music has
evolved and how the role of academic music centres is changing.
Daniel Cressey

Hidden treasures: The Jagiellonian Museum, Krakow p577
Poland's oldest university museum celebrates the Sun-centred ideas of
Copernicus and the history of the nation itself,
explains Alison Abbott.

Generosity: A winner's advice p579
Mathematical models can reveal how prosocial human behaviour -- and
even social intelligence and language -- have evolved,
argues Martin A. Nowak.

Cancer stem cells: Here, there, everywhere? pp581-582
Can every tumour cell propagate human cancers or is this property
exclusive to an elite subset? Findings are divided. The latest set
shows that -- depending on circumstances -- both perspectives can
be correct.
Connie J. Eaves

Materials science: Clear leap for superconductors pp582-583
Electric fields offer an innovative means of controlling
condensed-matter systems. The approach has been applied to nanoscale
oxide interfaces, for studying the physics of two-dimensional
Darrell G. Schlom and Charles H. Ahn

Stem cells: Makeshift sperm production pp583-585
Early middle age is a difficult time, not least for male fruitflies
when sperm production falls. The unexpected reason for this decline
seems to be that, as tissues age, maintaining functional stem cells
becomes difficult.
Allan C. Spradling

50 & 100 years ago p585

Fertilization: Welcome to the fold pp586-587
The mammalian egg coat participates in fertilization and prevents
more than one sperm from entering the egg. Structural data pinpoint
a region common to egg-coat proteins that might mediate these
Paul M. Wassarman

Astrophysics: Echo from an ancient supernova pp587-589
Light reflected off a dust cloud in the vicinity of the relic of
Tycho Brahe's supernova, whose light first swept past Earth more
than four centuries ago, literally sheds light on the nature of this
cosmic explosion.
Andrea Pastorello and Ferdinando Patat

Behavioural ecology: The social side of wild yeast pp589-590
The workhorse of cell biology, yeast, is a surprisingly cooperative
organism. It uses an unusual means of identifying partners -- a
'green-beard gene', which encodes a tag that must match among
cooperating cells.
David C. Queller

Neuroscience: Along memory lane pp590-591
Memories are encoded by efficient signalling between neurons. The
myosin V proteins help this process by shuttling receptors and
membranes to make synaptic junctions better detectors of incoming
Yukiko Goda

Pleiotropic scaling and QTL data pE3
Joachim Hermisson and Alistair P. McGregor

Wagner et al. reply pE4
Gunter P. Wagner et al.

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Efficient tumour formation by single human melanoma cells pp593-598
Cancer stem cells in human tumours have been defined as cells that are
tumourigenic and self-renew when transplanted into immunocompromised
mice. It has been shown in a number of tumour types that such cancer
stem cells exist at relatively low frequencies. This paper now shows
that in human melanomas at least, there is a high proportion of
tumourigenic cells when the conditions for such transplanation
experiments are modified, casting doubt on the generality of the
cancer stem cell model.
Elsa Quintana et al.

Centrosome misorientation reduces stem cell division during ageing p599
Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self renewing
stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining tissue
homeostasis. This paper shows that changes in stem cell orientation
within the niche during ageing contribute to the decline in
spermatogenesis in Drosophila male germ line.
Jun Cheng, Nezaket Türkel, Nahid Hemati, Margaret T. Fuller,
Alan J. Hunt & Yukiko M. Yamashita

Mitofusin 2 tethers endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria pp605-610
It is shown that a mitochondrial protein, mitofusin 2, is enriched at
the mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum interface and mediates
tethering of both organelles. Ablation of mitofusin 2 results in
disruption of endoplasmic reticulum morphology and loss of calcium
transfer between the two organelles. Thus, mitofusin-2 mediates
tethering mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Olga Martins de Brito and Luca Scorrano

Ktu/PF13 is required for cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal
dyneins pp611-616
This paper identifies a gene, kintoun (ktu), which is important for
dynein arm formation resulting in the formation of motile cilia. It
is conserved from ciliated unicellular organisms to higher mammals.
Mutations in the homologous gene of two human primary ciliary
dyskinesia families are also identified.
Heymut Omran et al.

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Tycho Brahe's 1572 supernova as a standard type Ia as revealed by its
light-echo spectrum pp617-619
This study reports an optical spectrum of Tycho Brahe's supernova near
maximum brightness, obtained from a scattered-light echo more than
four centuries after the direct light of the explosion swept past
Earth. It is found that SN 1572 belongs to the majority class of
normal type Ia supernovae.
Oliver Krause et al.

Atmospheric structure and dynamics as the cause of ultraviolet
markings in the clouds of Venus pp620-623
When seen in ultraviolet light, Venus has contrast features that arise
from the non-uniform distribution of unknown absorbers within the
sulphuric acid clouds. This paper reports multi-wavelength imaging
that reveals that the dark low latitudes are dominated by convective
mixing that brings the ultraviolet absorbers up from depth. The bright
and uniform mid-latitude clouds reside in the 'cold collar', which
suppresses vertical mixing. In low and middle latitudes, the visible
cloud top is located at a constant altitude of 72 +- 1 km in both the
ultraviolet dark and bright regions, indicating that the brightness
variations result from compositional differences caused by the colder
Dmitry V. Titov et al.

Electric field control of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface ground
state pp624-627
It has been a goal in applied physics to construct devices in which
superconductivity can be switched on and off with an electric field.
Recently, it was shown that the conducting interface between LaAlO3
and SrTiO3 (both in bulk form are insulators) can produce a
two-dimensional superconducting condensate. This paper now uses the
electric field effect, which tunes the charge carrier density, to
explore the phase diagram of the system.
A. D. Caviglia et al.

Large tundra methane burst during onset of freezing pp628-630
A late-autumn shoulder is consistently observed in the seasonal cycles
of atmospheric methane at high latitude sites, but the sources
responsible remain uncertain. This study reports methane flux
measurements from a high Arctic setting during the onset of soil
freezing. The integral of the emissions during this freeze-in period
amount to approximately the same amount of methane emitted during the
entire summer season. It is found that the observed early winter
emission burst improves the agreement between the simulated seasonal
cycle and atmospheric data from latitudes north of 60degN. The results
suggest that permafrost associated freeze-in bursts of methane
emissions from tundra regions could be an important component of the
seasonal distribution of methane emissions from high latitudes.
Mikhail Mastepanov et al.

Partial rupture of a locked patch of the Sumatra megathrust during the
2007 earthquake sequence pp631-635
In March 2005 the Sunda megathrust earthquake, with a moment magnitude
of 8.6, occurred. Concern was then focused further south on the
Mentawai area, where large earthquakes had occurred in 1797
(magnitude 8.8) and 1833 (magnitude 9.0). On 12 September 2007, a
magnitude 8.4 earthquake occurred, followed by a magnitude 7.9
earthquake 12 hours later. This paper shows that these earthquakes
ruptured only a fraction of the area ruptured in 1833 and conclude
that the stress state on the portion of the Sunda megathrust that
ruptured in 1797 and 1833 was probably not adequate for the
development of a single major large rupture in 2007, meaning that the
potential for a large megathrust event in the Mentawai area thus
remains high.
A. Ozgun Konca et al.

The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits p636
Early hypotheses suggested that the digits of tetrapods (land
vertebrates) were homologues of fin radials, but this idea fell out of
favour on the basis of developmental studies and also on the fin of
Panderichthys, a fish closely related to land vertebrates, which
appeared to lack distal digit like fin radials. A new CT study of a
classic specimen of Panderichthys shows that the old interpretation
was in error. Panderichthys did indeed have digit like radials:
nothing stands in the way of the era of fish fingers.
Catherine A. Boisvert, Elga Mark-Kurik & Per E. Ahlberg

Direct control of paralysed muscles by cortical neurons p639
Brain–machine interfaces are a promising approach for treating spinal
cord injury caused paralysis by rerouting control signals from the
brain directly to the muscles. This paper demonstrates that monkeys
can directly control stimulation of muscles using the activity of
neurons in motor cortex, restoring goal directed movement to a
transiently paralysed arm. In addition, monkeys learned to use these
artificial connections so that single neurons previously not
associated with the movement could be used to control functional
Chet T. Moritz, Steve I. Perlmutter & Eberhard E. Fetz

Sox18 induces development of the lymphatic vasculature in mice p643
A role for Sox18 transcription factor has been suggested by lymphatic
dysfunction in the human syndrome hypotrichosis lymphedema
telangiectasia (HLT), which is caused by mutations in Sox18. This
paper shows that Sox18 directly activates Prox1 transcription. Sox18
null embryos show a complete absence of Prox1 positive lymphatic
endothelial cells emanating from the cardinal vein.
Mathias François et al.

Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility
to a bacterial toxin p648
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli causes severe gastrointestinal
disease, which is in part mediated by subtilase cytotoxin. The B
subunit of this toxin is now shown to have high affinity to glycans
containing N glycolylneuraminic acid, a saccharide that is not
synthesized by humans. Instead it is ingested by dietary intake of red
meat and dairy products and subsequently incorporated into intestinal
and kidney tissue.
Emma Byres et al.

Crystal structure of the ZP-N domain of ZP3 reveals the core fold of
animal egg coats pp653-657
Species-specific recognition between the egg extracellular matrix
(zona pellucida) and sperm is the first step of mammalian
fertilization. This paper reports the 2.3 A resolution structure of
the 'zona pellucida filament' of the egg, which act as sperm
receptors. The structure supports the presence of ZP-N repeats within
the amino-terminal region of ZP2 and other vertebrate zona
pellucida/vitelline proteins, and has implications for egg coat
architecture and the post-fertilization block to polyspermy and
Magnus Monne et al.

The ectodomain of Toll-like receptor 9 is cleaved to generate a
functional receptor p658
Endolysosomal proteolytric cleavage is shown to be required for TLR9
activation by CpG
Sarah E. Ewald et al.

Regulation of ERBB2 by oestrogen receptor–PAX2 determines response to
tamoxifen p663
Tamoxifen is commonly used for breast cancer therapy. This paper shows
that the transcriptional repression of the ERBB2 oncogene by tamoxifen
in breast cancer cells is affected by an antagonistic interaction
between the transcriptional regulators PAX2 and AIB 1. This affects
the ability of tamoxifen to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. The
relative levels of PAX2 and AIP1 in breast cancer patients treated
with tamoxifen correlates with relapse free survival.
Antoni Hurtado et al.

Role for perinuclear chromosome tethering in maintenance of genome
stability p667
Suppressing the homologous recombination of repetitive DNA sequences
is important for maintaining genome stability, and packaging of repeat
DNA into silent chromatin was generally thought to protect it from
recombination. Yeast ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repetitive sequences are
shown to associate with the nuclear periphery via inner nuclear
membrane proteins, and this tethering is required for rDNA stability.
Sir2 dependent silencing is not sufficient to inhibit rDNA
Karim Mekhail, Jan Seebacher, Steven P. Gygi & Danesh Moazed

Prospects p671
A disclaimer for graduate school.
Gene Russo

Career View
Exequiel Ezcurra, director, University of California Institute for
Mexico and the United States, Riverside, California p672
Political upheaval opens up an avenue for a scientific career.
Virginia Gewin

Just cure it p672
Major donation fuels big plans for cancer-research institute in
Virginia Gewin

All work and no play p672
Is my career taking over my life, one baboon at a time?
Aliza le Roux

Kidroid p674
There's no time like the present.
Shane Clark

03 December 2008
Spliceosomal cleavage generates the 3' end of telomerase RNA
Jessica A. Box, Jeremy T. Bunch, Wen Tang & Peter Baumann

Live-animal tracking of individual haematopoietic stem/progenitor
cells in their niche
Cristina Lo Celso et al.

Caenorhabditis elegans dauers need LKB1/AMPK to ration lipid reserves
and ensure long-term survival
Patrick Narbonne & Richard Roy

A simple model of bipartite cooperation for ecological and
organizational networks
Serguei Saavedra, Felix Reed-Tsochas & Brian Uzzi

Detection of functional haematopoietic stem cell niche using real-time
Yucai Xie et al.

30 November 2008
The dynein regulatory complex is required for ciliary motility and
otolith biogenesis in the inner ear
Jessica R. Colantonio et al.

Protein kinase R reveals an evolutionary model for defeating viral
Nels C. Elde, Stephanie J. Child, Adam P. Geballe & Harmit S. Malik

Discovery of a sexual cycle in the opportunistic fungal pathogen
Aspergillus fumigatus
Céline M. O'Gorman, Hubert T. Fuller & Paul S. Dyer

MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP
kinase signalling in fibroblasts
Thomas Thum et al.

A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
Peter J. Turnbaugh et al.

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